Extreme Cleverness: Functional Data Structures in Scala
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According to Daniel Spiewak, Clojure's vec requires, in the worst case, 7 array accesses and 14 bit operations.
On really large datasets—this just astonished me when I discovered it—on really large datasets this data structure [Clojure vec] beats java.util.ArrayList for lookup. It beats java.util.ArrayList for datasets that are in the 2 billion range. That is incredibly fast. java.util.ArrayList is an array, right? And we're beating an array.